Current Mining Projects

General Information

Iron Ore

Archaeological studies show that history of mining in Anatolia goes back to 8800BC. Turkey is located within the alpine orogenic zone and has been subjected to intensive tectonic movements. Turkey has been divided into numbers of tectonic plates, intensive igneous activities developed, ophiolite emplacements took place.

Iron ore deposits in Turkey are mainly small and medium size. They are genetically 6 types.

1. Contact metasomatic deposits. Divriği A and B bodies (Sıvas, CentralTurkey), Karamadazı (Erzincan), Bızmişen, Hasançelebi (EastTurkey).

2. Hydrothermal metasomatic deposits. Attepe, Mansurlu (Adana, SouthTurkey).

3. Volcano-sedimentary deposits. Hekimhan (Malatya, E.Turkey), Büyük Eymir (Balıkesir, WestTurkey).

4. Marine sedimentary deposits. Çamdağ (Sakarya, NW.Turkey).

5. Lateritic deposits. Avşarören (Sıvas, C.Turkey), Karaçam (Eskişehir, WestTurkey).

6. Placer deposits. C placer (Divriği, Central Turkey), Eastern Black sea coastal sands.

 

Project Area (Eastern Taurides)

The Southeast Anatolian Orogen resulted from collision of the Afro-Arabian and the Eurasian plates following the Cretaceous to Miocene closure of the southern Neotethyan oceanic basin. In this orogenic belt, there are number of tectonomagmatic/stratigraphic units in the Kahramanmaraş–Malatya–Elazığ region that are important to understand the geological evolution of southeast Anatolia during the Late Cretaceous. These are (a) metamorphic massifs (i.e. Malatya–Keban platform), (b) ophiolites (i.e. Göksun, İspendere, Kömürhan), (c) ophiolite-related metamorphics (i.e. Berit metaophiolite) and (d) granitoids (i.e. Göksun, Doğanşehir and Baskil). The Baskil granitoid crops out to the northwest of Elazığ and is a large magmatic body (170 km2) that intruded all of the above-mentioned units during Late Cretaceous time.

A wide spectrum of ore deposits is represented from those occurring in island arcs to those associated with continental settings. Though Turkey has been one of the leading producers of chromite, the country is an emerging producer of precious and base metals.
Exploration programs in the last two decades have started to reveal the true mineral potential of the country. Turkey is an underexplored country by today’s standards, with a large prospective area with a wide spectrum of mineral deposits reflecting the diverse geological environments that are present. Turkey is the least well explored portion of the Tethyan belt, which hosts Au and Cu endowments comparable with the Andes and the southwest Pacific metallogenic belts.

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Results of Chemical Analyses

  • Chemical analyses of some samples collected from iron deposits are here only be referred:

    40 - 90% Fe2O3, 1 - 35% SiO2, up to 10% AI2O3 and up to 2.5% K2O contents of massive ore samples of Otlukilise iron deposits indicate an iron-claystone formation at first glance. Reaching up to 3% MnO values derive from similar physicochemical behavior of Fe and Mn, MgO and CaO contents varying around 1% point out a small percentage of carbonate phase. Other associated oxides of ore are characterized by less than 5% Na2O, TiO2 and P2O5. Trend of major element values indicate an iron environment characterized by the dominance of carbonate, quartz and clay minerals (possibly clayey carbonate). The mean less than 10% varying within the limits of 5-20% of loss on ignition
    reflects that the recent character of ore is represented by oxide phase rather than carbonate
    phase.

    Trace element values of Ba vary between 200-1800 ppm, Co, Cu and Zn between 2 -1225 ppm, Ni
    between 2 -50 ppm, S, Cl and As between 10 – 7000 ppm and all of these values suppose hydrothermal solutions. On the contrary, Pb contents are very low changing within 1 - 20 ppm values.